CHAPTER 11 - INCOME STATEMENTS
Being able to present a clear, concise, logical and
supportable financial projection is probably the most important key to having a chance of
obtaining the capital you desire. If you don't have financial forecast ability, hire
someone who does. Have your pro forma give a month by month breakdown for the first year
and then quarterly or annually for the next four years.
Projections Should Include and Fully Support:
- Sales Estimates
- Administrative Costs
- Production Costs
- Sales Costs
- Capital Expenditures
- Gross Margin by Product Line
- Sales Increase by Product Line
- Interest Rates on Debts
- Income Tax Rate
- Accounts Receivable Collection Plan
- Accounts Payable Schedule
- Inventory Turnover
- Depreciation Schedules
- Usefulness of Assets
The Income Statement (Profit & Loss)
The income projection enables the owner/manager to develop a preview of the amount of
income generated each month and for the business year, based on reasonable predictions of
monthly levels of sales, costs and expenses.
1. Total Net Sales (Revenues)
The total number of units of products or services you realistically expect to sell each
month in each department at the prices you expect to get. Use this step to create the
projections to review your pricing practices. What returns, allowances and markdowns can
2. Costs of Sales
The key to accurately calculating your cost of sales is not to overlook any costs that you
have incurred. Calculate the cost of sale of all products and services used to determine
total net sales. Where inventory is involved, remember transportation costs and any direct
3. Gross Profit
Subtract the total cost of sales from the total net sales to obtain gross profit.
4. Gross Profit Margin
The gross profit is expressed as a percentage of total sales (revenues). It is calculated
by dividing the gross profits by the total net sales.
5. Controllable Expenses
- Salary expenses -- Base pay plus overtime.
- Payroll expenses -- Include paid vacations, sick leave,
health insurance, unemployment insurance and social security taxes (employer paid
- Outside services -- Include costs of subcontracts, overflow
work and special or one-time services.
- Supplies -- Services and items purchased for use in the
- Repair and maintenance -- Regular maintenance and repair,
including periodic large expenditures such as painting.
- Advertising -- Include desired sales volume and classified
directory advertising expenses.
- Car delivery and travel -- Include charges if personal car
is used in business, including parking, tools, buying trips, etc.
- Accounting and legal -- Outside professional services.
- Dues and subscriptions.
6. Fixed Expenses
- Rent -- List only real estate used in business.
- Depreciation -- Amortization of capital assets.
- Insurance -- Fire or liability on property or products.
Include workers' compensation.
- Loan repayments -- Interest on outstanding loans.
- Licenses and permits.
- Miscellaneous -- Unspecified; small expenditures without
7. Net Profit (or Loss)
- (before taxes) - Subtract total expenses from gross profit.
- Taxes - Include inventory and sales tax, excise tax, real
estate tax, etc.
- (after taxes) - Subtract taxes from net profit (before
Income Projection Worksheet
This following is the form that should be used to project month to month income
and expenses for year one and then to provide annual projections for the next four years.
- Total net sales (TNS) $
- Costs of sales (COS) $
- Gross profit (TNS-COS=GP) $
- Gross Profit margin (GP/TNS) %
- Salaries/wages $
- Payroll expenses $
- Legal/accounting $
- Advertising $
- Automobile $
- Office supplies $
- Dues/Subscriptions $
- Utilities $
- Other $
- Rent $
- Depreciation $
- Insurance $
- License/permits $
- Loan payments $
- Other $
- Net profit (loss) before taxes (GP-Expenses) $
- Taxes $
- Net profit (loss) after taxes $
Menu I To Chapter 12